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Cotgrave's World: Book 10 Bacchus

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Thoughts, proverbs and Sayings from the 16th Century

Extracts from a French to English dictionary by, R Cotgrave. Published 1611. In this section we cover, amongst other topics:

  1. Bacchus
  2. Morris dancers
  3. Sea Gods
  4. Mithridate
  5. Oracles
  6. Juliet, July, Astrology of Shakespeare
  7. Venus


The cries, howling, screeches of madmen, or the ordinary acclamations [ loud and eager, assent, consent to a proposal, (voted, carried, by acclamation; usually in the plural sense of shouting in a person's honour], of Bacchus, given on his behalf by his priests.

thigh born, {a title-name of Bacchus.

Dionysos, [known to the Romans as Bacchus; presided over all altered states of mind and conscience, such as by drink, drugs, religious ecstasy, acting, and more; he often appeared disguised as a Bull or Lion, or human either male or female. Dionysos was above all god of wine, which to the Greeks was the nectar drank by the gods. He was the icon of a great mystic cult, whose initiates pursued an ecstatic release brought on by wine, music and dance. The male followers were known as Satyrs, were devoted to wine, revelry and lust. The female followers were called bacchants or maenads (mad women)] Denis was one of Bacchus's surnames, sun name, that is.

a name, title of Bacchus,
or wine, which delivers men from care,
pensiveness or thought taking.

Burnt, as a dead body;
craving, expecting, affecting, the sacrifice of men's bodies.

to run madly up and down, playing on a cymbal and wagging his head, like one of the Cybele's, priests, also to sleep with the eyes open.

so running, or sleeping;
corymbe- an ivy berry.

the 1st in rank, the best at a game, the chief of an order, a president-principal or prime person. Hence the leader of the dance; and he that in any manor excels or exceeds all others.

bacchanals, Bacchus' feasts, shroving or wakes.

to rage, play mad pranks,
act like a madman, [as the priests of Bacchus were given to do when they celebrated his feasts].

an enraged or furious woman. The priestesses of Bacchus and the Druids.
Bacchante, as previous.
Bacchique; belonging to Bacchus.
Bachelage, bachelor- ship, priesthood.

'A la bacule'
The riding of a wild mare; the punishment for misses, in some games. To be clapped - slapped on the bum, with a batting staff.

To bump on the buttocks with a bat, or Baccoler. Hence,

A great ferry boat, or horse boat, also a vessal of copper, full of water, for wine pots to stand in at dinner time.

a bottle.

Barred or bolted from the inside.

playing see-saw, then called titter totter, riding a wild mare; tottering, swinging, swaying, often lift up and down. Consider, 'Bacule'.

Greedy, devouring, catching snatching, grasping at.

Harpy, one of those monstrous and ravenous birds, which poets said to have had, women's faces, hands armed with talons, and bellies full of ordure, with which they infected all the meat they touched, and therefore the monstrous brood of some women are called, {moles- moon calves].

, a whipping, scourging, lashing, jerking: as male followers of Bacchus were libel to do to themselves; and which the priestess'
subjected their intended victims for sacrifice, all too often children.
Flageoler, to pipe or play the whistle.

One that has sold a beast for sacrifice,
or, one that has assisted the sacrificer
in the killing
and dressing thereof.

'Cicle lunaire.'
The golden number, 19

'Cicle solaire.'
28 years.

The 3 graces, reputed daughter of Jupiter and Venus, adored as goddesses, by the ancient 'painims'


'Il a besoing de sacrifier aux Graces'
he is a harsh, unpleasant,
roughhewed, currish, fellow,
lacking in all graces.

m, f. Plunged in Acheron, drowned in hell; also, hellish, or bred in hell; also, hellish, or bred in hell; and (hence) most cruel, fell, hideous.

'Ames Acherontides.'
damned souls.

Fury madness, frenzy, woodiness, the furies of hell.

Furiously, raging, woody, wrathfully, bedlam like.

'Ve Jove.'
A wicked spirit, a god that can do no harm will do no good.

The office or dignity of a pagan Arch priest, a flaminship. [sun worshipers, lovers of the eternal flame, and sacrifice through fire. Listed as priests of Ceres, Rhea, Dionysus, Ops, Vesta, and every other goddess or god of the Vine.]

libation. A sacrifice, a thing offered or tasted in offering.

'Acolyte, as Accolite'.
He that ministers to the priest while he sacrifices, or says mass.

a satire, half man, half goat.
['chevre pied', cloven hooved-
footed, a title- name for a satire].

the feasts of Saturn,
celebrated by the ancient painims in
December. Saturn, the planet, also,
lead amongst alchemists.

a kind of brazen timbrel.

'Trou de la Sybille'.
An- the, arsehole.
The vestal virgins, the nuns of the heathenish Romans. [ they like all other priestesses would eventually be known by their Egyptian title, Nuns, after the goddess Nun, who was the first virgin betrothed to God.]

A sect of religious men and women, {which wore a secret crown on their heads} incestuous, as the Adamites by night.

A sodomy.

'Danse macabre.'
death {a dance
wherein there is no respect of age,
degree, worth, dignity.

The sacrifices of Bacchus.

The dart or javelin of Bacchus.

'Bal [Baal] A dance or dancing,
revel or reveling.

A sacrifice wherein a 100 beasts were killed.

Household gods.

a limping, halting, lameness, faulting, same as 'claudition'
same as Emperor Claudius.

A wooden grid iron,
where upon the
broil pieces of men,
and other flesh.
[odd, considering Nostra' mentions
exactly this practice rearing its head
in France, sometime in the future.]

An extreme fit, 0r, or expression of anger.
[the more things change, the more
they stay the same].

'Homme roux, et femme barbue de cinquante pas les value; vne pierre ou poing',
Because they
(red haired man and bearded woman)
are held as very dangerous people.

Morris dancers

'A bon bluteur May propice.'
Somewhat as stiff as a Maypole does well
with him that bolts in a fleshy tub.

a buffoon, jester, sycophant,
merry fool, sporting companion,
one that lives by making others merry. Thus,

'Danser les Buffons.'
To dance a Morris:

'Valets de le feste'.
A kind of Morris dancers, attired like fools and having as ours, their legs gartered with bells.

[morris dancing-dancers are merely performing a ritual representation of the behaviour of the priests and priestesses of Bacchus, with their cymbals and bells, drunken revelry and scourging and lustful orgies, it was said they first did this, to distract Cronus from the crying of baby Zeus.] [the same type rituals were 1st ly part of Druid culture].

[ the word Morris, has wrongly been taken from the Latin Maurus, which comes from the Greek Mauros, =dark, as dark skinned like Moors. This is ignorance, the name must have relevance to what they are, thus what they do. They tell us that Cronus-time, fathered several children with his wife Rhea-mother of birth, but that Cronus-time, having found out beforehand from Gaia-earth, and Uranus-darkness, that one of his children would overthrow him, swallowed each one the moment they left the womb. First Hestia, then Hades, followed by Demeter, Poseidon and Hera; but when it was time for Rhea to give birth to Zeus, she prepared a stone and wrapped in swaddling - pieces torn from her skirt, bandages, so to speak. As soon as Zeus was born, his mother hid him, presenting the fast arriving Cronus with the stone, which he swallowed without a second thought. She could not hide him for long, so she gave him unto the care of others. Some say it was Gaia the Earth who raised Zeus, others that his cousin a goat called Amalthea suckled him; yet others, that she gave him unto the care of her priestess's the Curetes, or kouretes. Yet others say he was raised by a nymph called Adamanthea, who feeds him on goat's milk. All three are correct, but what happens next is the same in all three, in order to stop Cronus becoming suspicious when Zeus cried, a troop of Curetes, soldiers and lesser gods made bellicose noises and chants, and clashed their swords and bronze shields together, while others banged on drums and rattled sistrums. Now the goat in question, is of course of Aries, and Aries and Mars, are brothers and gods of war, and by the bellicose noises, gods of thunder, and Jesus called James and John sons of thunder? Thus, the word Morris must derive from the Ram of Aries, and Mars, and cannot signify dark, but light, as Aries is Spring. We are well informed that the Holy Week of Cybele, was in March, [Mars-church-house, tent].

The Holy week started on the 15th of March with the 'Canna intrat', the Reed enters, carried by the Cannophores- Reed carriers, marking the birth of Attis, and consequently, his exposure amongst the reeds along the banks of the river Sangarius. Where he was found by shepherds or Cybele herself; the reed is then gathered and carried away by the Cannophores.


  1. It is no coincidence, that this myth resembles that of Moses, birth, hiding in the reeds and discovery by Pharaoh's daughter who ordered her attendants to retrieve the child. It is the same story. Nor then can it be taken lightly, that Moses led the Hebrews through the sea of Reeds, rather than the favoured Red Sea? The original words indicate Reeds.
  2. The River called Sangarius, is known to us as the river Sakanya, in present day Turkey, it was the equivalent of the Egyptian Nile to the Phrygians. Like all countries that took on the religion of Astrology, they named their lands, cities, with regard to the Zodiac. St Paul, we are told was born near or in the area beside the Tarsus Mts, in Turkey, and Tarsus, is exactly the same as Taurus, proof enough that Turkey was originally laid out with regard to the Zodiac; and considering Paul was born in Gemini on the cusp of Taurus, and in astrology Taurus is the father of Gemini, one should not doubt it. Nevertheless, I would have to take SANGARIUS, firstly, as River of Blood, but also as by translation of Latin to its 2 roots, as signifying, the Blood of Aries, sang-aries. And it most certainly was a time when rams or goats were offered as blood sacrifices. It is well attested that the Nile was the very Blood of Egypt, the flux of Osiris, the bloodline was water, but Jesus turned it into wine.
  3. The cannophores, are the servants, a sect of priests, carriers or bearers of the Reed, Attis's body. I suspect but I not come across proof that there was some sort of Reed harvest, in mid-March. Osiris and Horus were associated with wheat, there must have been a reason to assimilate Attis with Reeds. [this story, is the same as that of Rhea hiding of Zeus, to stop Cronus swallowing him, she sent him to be suckled by a goat, or more to reason, to Adamathea, who is the shepherd Auriga this constellation is often depicted as a man seated with a shepherd's staff with a young goat in his lap.]

Now Attis has been born, and the next event takes place on the cusp of Pisces to Aries, the 22nd of March. The Dendrophores -tree bearers enter, commemorating the death of Attis under a pine tree. They ritually cut down the tree, then suspend an image of Attis from it and carry the tree to the temple, with mournful cries and laments.

[now they tell us that Adamanthea, knowing that Cronus was god of the Earth, the Heavens and the sea, suspended the baby Zeus from the branch of a tree between earth, sea and sky, where he was invisible to Cronus, it seems Attis is another name for Zeus. It is also the reason that amongst the many titles of Virgo, that she is called, 'the mother or mistress of Illusion, many girls names carry this meaning. There is also a connection here between Seth and Osiris; Osiris' s body was consumed by a tree, which had to be cut down to release his body. In the original Egyptian myth, it was Seth who cut down the tree and upon releasing the body, he cut it into pieces, and threw it into the Nile.]

23rd of March. Was the Tubilustrium, an ancient holiday of Mars. The tree was laid to rest in the temple of Magna Mater {mother earth -Gaia}, with the traditional beating of shields and swords, by the priest of Mars, the Salli. [this is exactly the same as what the Kuretes-Curetes, Korybantes-Corybantes, along with the soldiers and lesser gods did to distract Cronus from the cries of Zeus.

24th of March. The Sanguem or Dies Sanguinis, {the Day of Blood}, on this day the devotees, priests, Salli, Galli, whipped themselves into a frenzy, literally, to sprinkle their blood over the altars and images of Attis. Some performed the rites of self-castration, as the Galli's. The Sacred night ended the day and Attis was placed in his Arc-tomb. [that is why the sacred river as I suggested, Sangarius does indeed signify the 'River of Blood'.]

25th of March. {Vernal Equinox on the Roman Calender}, we have the Hilaria, the rejoicing, when Attis was ritually reborn. [ this tells us that it was the rebirth of Spring, thus like Horus and Osiris, Attis was a vegetation god.]
[some early Christian sources associate this day correctly with the mythical birth of Jesus.]

26th of March. The Requietio, 'Day of Rest', [this day was merely symbolic of the time it took for Attis, or Jesus to grow up.

27th of March. The Lavatio, {ritual washing}, {we are informed by Ovid, that on this day Cybeles sacred Stone was taken in procession from the Palatine Temple to the Porta Capena, {door of Capricorn, or as 'caput', the door of the horses.} and down the Appian way to the stream called Almo, a tributary of the Tibek, there the Stone was washed and the sacred Iron implements bathed in Phygarian manner, by a red robbed priest, {the Hemera plasenter.}


  1. The god Hemera was actually the goddess of the PLACENTA, and we should know that the placenta is red, like the robes of the priest, and if you think old gods disappear, I might remind you that Bloody Mary, the first daughter of Henry VIII, was born in the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich, London, in 1516.
  2. The Porta Capena, Capricorn, is of course the end of year, the month the old year dies, {thus, the title -Dies Sanguinis,}.
  3. The Stone, is actually representative of mother earth, Virgo was also called mother of the mountains, and was often portrayed as a stone, esp under her title Terra, or Magna mater.

The iron implements would have included tools used in harvest, however in more diabolical religions these implements were also those used in sacrifice, animal and human.

28th of March. The Initium Caiani, the initiations into the mysteries of Magna Mater and Attis. At the Gaia-num, near the Phrygianum sanctuary at the Vatican Hill.

[ at the Roman Taurobolium, they sacrificed a bull, but during the Criobolium they sacrificed a ram; the Taur-us -obolium, was instituted before the Criobolium, but both were performed once the Criobolium was instituted, but the Criobolium often replaced it altogether.

This is exactly what happened to Abraham when he was instructed to sacrifice his son Isaac, but at the last moment a Ram was substituted, odd but Abram=was Aries-Ab=father-ram, Isaac, was of Taurus, thus Aries was instructed to sacrifice his own son Taurus, but in reality, Abram himself was the sacrifice, he was the Ram-Aries. As Moses points out the Hebrews like their masters the Egyptians, sacrificed to the golden calf of Taurus.

The word Crio-bolium, comes from Crista-e, the clitoris-crest-plume + embolum= ram or beak of a ship, the prow, front of the Argo is under Taurus and the ram sits on his hind quarters. The reason Moses points this matter out, is one, because the Bull Taurus was at that time no longer the start of spring. Whether you think an Age lasts 2000 years, or by the mean Egyptian period of 2160 years, we believe we have been in the age of Pisces since I AD, Thus the Age of Aries started from either 2160 or 2000, BC, the Age of Taurus from between 4320 BC, or 4000 BC, so he tells us the Hebrews were still worshiping the Bull, after it had in reality been replaced by ARIES, the Ram. However, the celebrations for both were the same.

I have said more than enough to prove that the title Morris Dancers, stems from Aries and Mars, and the dances they perform are symbolistic of the dances performed by the priests and soldiers etc to distract Zeus etc from discovering the new born child and killing it. If you knew what these people are really symbolizing, you would not think they were so quaint anymore.

Sea Gods

Neptunes feasts-holy days.
[exactly the same as Poseidon,
or the Jewish and Egyptian Seth.]

God of the sea, a sea;
as Neptune.

the sea.
Sea goddess, wife of Poseidon, same as Salacia, goddess of salt water, but that is confusing, both like the Egyptian goddess Nephthys were goddess's, of all life in water, whether salt, clear or muddied, all life below the surface, that breathed or were able to breath without air.


'Herb Mithridate'.
Scordium, water germander,
{so, called of king Mithridates, the first finder of? Also, Methridat-e, a strong treacle, or preservative devised at first by Pontian, king Mithridates. [ his diet of prophylactics had supposedly immune to pioson.] [the Mithraic religion was openly astrological, but was merely a reflection of the Greek Astrology, which was inferior to that of the Egyptians, shown by Herodotus'
s failure to understand the reason the Egyptians had a scarab, where they had crab in cancer; but Egyptian Astrology was not theirs, the observations and calculations, the configuration of the constellations, were originally those made by a seafaring nation. After all there were a lot of fish, etc amongst the stars, including a polyp, a lobster, a dolphin, a crab, a whale, a water snake.

A victoress, a victorious or
vanquishing woman. [Queen Victoria].
Also, a Roman goddess.


The transmigration, or passage of the soul from one body to another (Pythagoras' error) [there is no such thing, reincarnation is foolish antidote for death].


An oracle, a sentence delivered,
an answer (pretended to have been) given,
by God or gods.

'Quand il tonne en Mars, nous pouvons dire helas.'
(so evil is the thunder of March
held to be.)
[March comes in like a lion,
and goes out like a lamb].

'Ciencture doree,'.
A golden girdle {in former times worn only by such as went for honest women, noted whores were forbidden it. [from the girdle of the Amazon Queen, the same as Berenices hair],

Cucumber, so called with reference to the great Bull of Taurus, cowcumber- a bull's dick. {which would be green in Egyptian, myth-religion.

Juliet, July, Astrology of Shakespeare

Juillet, the month of July, also, lune- luner as ieune and ieuner. The Roman month Quintilus, renamed July in Caesar honour. At a hunched guess, I would think maybe this is the month when the Moon begins to be seen in the morning sky, in daylight, and thus guessing that as the Sun waned the Moon was gone from the morning and seen in the afternoon.

Shakespeare's Romeo was the morning Sun, who opened his eyes to see the Moon, Juliet, standing at her balcony, amongst the clouds and sky; instantly besotted with beauty, he wooed her, but never could they be alone together, for even their families, sworn enemies could only bear to pass each other on opposite sides of the street. For Juliet's family were of night, and Romeos of day. One day when Romeo wakes and looks for his loved one she is gone from the morning sky. Heartbroken Romeo determines to join his love in death, where they might finally be alone together; before the noon the deed is done, young Romeo is prostrate and dead, when Juliet reappears that afternoon. Sees her lover dead, decides upon the same recourse, neither will be seen again until the Spring.


A nunne, a nun that is. Even I have used the retort, 'sanctimonious bitch', when a woman gives it, that, holier than thou crap. Said of that not so rare woman, who believes she is always right, even when she is blatantly wrong, and that you are always wrong point blank. A nun should be as a vestal virgin, abstaining from the sins of the flesh, in all manor or form, and they are all sanctimonal'


Venus. One of the 7 planets, the day or the morning star, {seen easily, in march, along with Jupiter, at night, often with the stars of Orion, on their wane. Also,
goddess of lust, or venery, wantonness, unchaste, chastity, le cherry, or lechery, [copper, amongst alchemists].

'Pelerine de Venus'.
A punk, a whore.

One of the 7 planets, the day or the morning star. Also, the goddess of lust, wantonness, lechery, to alchemists, copper. Also

the 7 stars of, 'verseau'-aqua-water.
Venerien-ne. Belonging to Venus; also addicted, or given to veneree, lecherous, licentious. Also, veneur- hunter, huntsman. Vener- to hunt. Venesique- venomous, poisonous, contagious.